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//
// HTTPRequest
//
#ifndef HTTPREQUEST_HPP
#define HTTPREQUEST_HPP
#include <algorithm>
#include <functional>
#include <stdexcept>
#include <system_error>
#include <map>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <cctype>
#include <cstddef>
#include <cstdint>
#ifdef _WIN32
# pragma push_macro("WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN")
# pragma push_macro("NOMINMAX")
# ifndef WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
# define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
# endif
# ifndef NOMINMAX
# define NOMINMAX
# endif
# include <winsock2.h>
# include <ws2tcpip.h>
# pragma pop_macro("WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN")
# pragma pop_macro("NOMINMAX")
#else
# include <sys/socket.h>
# include <netinet/in.h>
# include <netdb.h>
# include <unistd.h>
# include <errno.h>
#endif
namespace http
{
#ifdef _WIN32
class WinSock final
{
public:
WinSock()
{
WSADATA wsaData;
int error = WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(2, 2), &wsaData);
if (error != 0)
throw std::system_error(error, std::system_category(), "WSAStartup failed");
if (LOBYTE(wsaData.wVersion) != 2 || HIBYTE(wsaData.wVersion) != 2)
throw std::runtime_error("Invalid WinSock version");
started = true;
}
~WinSock()
{
if (started) WSACleanup();
}
WinSock(const WinSock&) = delete;
WinSock& operator=(const WinSock&) = delete;
WinSock(WinSock&& other):
started(other.started)
{
other.started = false;
}
WinSock& operator=(WinSock&& other)
{
if (&other != this)
{
if (started) WSACleanup();
started = other.started;
other.started = false;
}
return *this;
}
private:
bool started = false;
};
#endif
inline int getLastError()
{
#ifdef _WIN32
return WSAGetLastError();
#else
return errno;
#endif
}
enum class InternetProtocol: uint8_t
{
V4,
V6
};
inline int getAddressFamily(InternetProtocol internetProtocol)
{
switch (internetProtocol)
{
case InternetProtocol::V4: return AF_INET;
case InternetProtocol::V6: return AF_INET6;
default:
throw std::runtime_error("Unsupported protocol");
}
}
class Socket final
{
public:
Socket(InternetProtocol internetProtocol):
endpoint(socket(getAddressFamily(internetProtocol), SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP))
{
#ifdef _WIN32
if (endpoint == INVALID_SOCKET)
throw std::system_error(WSAGetLastError(), std::system_category(), "Failed to create socket");
#else
if (endpoint == -1)
throw std::system_error(errno, std::system_category(), "Failed to create socket");
#endif
}
#ifdef _WIN32
Socket(SOCKET s):
endpoint(s)
{
}
#else
Socket(int s):
endpoint(s)
{
}
#endif
~Socket()
{
#ifdef _WIN32
if (endpoint != INVALID_SOCKET) closesocket(endpoint);
#else
if (endpoint != -1) close(endpoint);
#endif
}
Socket(const Socket&) = delete;
Socket& operator=(const Socket&) = delete;
Socket(Socket&& other):
endpoint(other.endpoint)
{
#ifdef _WIN32
other.endpoint = INVALID_SOCKET;
#else
other.endpoint = -1;
#endif
}
Socket& operator=(Socket&& other)
{
if (&other != this)
{
#ifdef _WIN32
if (endpoint != INVALID_SOCKET) closesocket(endpoint);
#else
if (endpoint != -1) close(endpoint);
#endif
endpoint = other.endpoint;
#ifdef _WIN32
other.endpoint = INVALID_SOCKET;
#else
other.endpoint = -1;
#endif
}
return *this;
}
#ifdef _WIN32
operator SOCKET() const { return endpoint; }
#else
operator int() const { return endpoint; }
#endif
private:
#ifdef _WIN32
SOCKET endpoint = INVALID_SOCKET;
#else
int endpoint = -1;
#endif
};
inline std::string urlEncode(const std::string& str)
{
static const char hexChars[16] = { '0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F' };
std::string result;
for (auto i = str.begin(); i != str.end(); ++i)
{
uint8_t cp = *i & 0xFF;
if ((cp >= 0x30 && cp <= 0x39) || // 0-9
(cp >= 0x41 && cp <= 0x5A) || // A-Z
(cp >= 0x61 && cp <= 0x7A) || // a-z
cp == 0x2D || cp == 0x2E || cp == 0x5F) // - . _
result += static_cast<char>(cp);
else if (cp <= 0x7F) // length = 1
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
else if ((cp >> 5) == 0x6) // length = 2
{
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
if (++i == str.end()) break;
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
}
else if ((cp >> 4) == 0xe) // length = 3
{
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
if (++i == str.end()) break;
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
if (++i == str.end()) break;
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
}
else if ((cp >> 3) == 0x1e) // length = 4
{
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
if (++i == str.end()) break;
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
if (++i == str.end()) break;
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
if (++i == str.end()) break;
result += std::string("%") + hexChars[(*i & 0xF0) >> 4] + hexChars[*i & 0x0F];
}
}
return result;
}
struct Response final
{
enum Status
{
STATUS_CONTINUE = 100,
STATUS_SWITCHINGPROTOCOLS = 101,
STATUS_PROCESSING = 102,
STATUS_EARLYHINTS = 103,
STATUS_OK = 200,
STATUS_CREATED = 201,
STATUS_ACCEPTED = 202,
STATUS_NONAUTHORITATIVEINFORMATION = 203,
STATUS_NOCONTENT = 204,
STATUS_RESETCONTENT = 205,
STATUS_PARTIALCONTENT = 206,
STATUS_MULTISTATUS = 207,
STATUS_ALREADYREPORTED = 208,
STATUS_IMUSED = 226,
STATUS_MULTIPLECHOICES = 300,
STATUS_MOVEDPERMANENTLY = 301,
STATUS_FOUND = 302,
STATUS_SEEOTHER = 303,
STATUS_NOTMODIFIED = 304,
STATUS_USEPROXY = 305,
STATUS_TEMPORARYREDIRECT = 307,
STATUS_PERMANENTREDIRECT = 308,
STATUS_BADREQUEST = 400,
STATUS_UNAUTHORIZED = 401,
STATUS_PAYMENTREQUIRED = 402,
STATUS_FORBIDDEN = 403,
STATUS_NOTFOUND = 404,
STATUS_METHODNOTALLOWED = 405,
STATUS_NOTACCEPTABLE = 406,
STATUS_PROXYAUTHENTICATIONREQUIRED = 407,
STATUS_REQUESTTIMEOUT = 408,
STATUS_CONFLICT = 409,
STATUS_GONE = 410,
STATUS_LENGTHREQUIRED = 411,
STATUS_PRECONDITIONFAILED = 412,
STATUS_PAYLOADTOOLARGE = 413,
STATUS_URITOOLONG = 414,
STATUS_UNSUPPORTEDMEDIATYPE = 415,
STATUS_RANGENOTSATISFIABLE = 416,
STATUS_EXPECTATIONFAILED = 417,
STATUS_IMATEAPOT = 418,
STATUS_MISDIRECTEDREQUEST = 421,
STATUS_UNPROCESSABLEENTITY = 422,
STATUS_LOCKED = 423,
STATUS_FAILEDDEPENDENCY = 424,
STATUS_TOOEARLY = 425,
STATUS_UPGRADEREQUIRED = 426,
STATUS_PRECONDITIONREQUIRED = 428,
STATUS_TOOMANYREQUESTS = 429,
STATUS_REQUESTHEADERFIELDSTOOLARGE = 431,
STATUS_UNAVAILABLEFORLEGALREASONS = 451,
STATUS_INTERNALSERVERERROR = 500,
STATUS_NOTIMPLEMENTED = 501,
STATUS_BADGATEWAY = 502,
STATUS_SERVICEUNAVAILABLE = 503,
STATUS_GATEWAYTIMEOUT = 504,
STATUS_HTTPVERSIONNOTSUPPORTED = 505,
STATUS_VARIANTALSONEGOTIATES = 506,
STATUS_INSUFFICIENTSTORAGE = 507,
STATUS_LOOPDETECTED = 508,
STATUS_NOTEXTENDED = 510,
STATUS_NETWORKAUTHENTICATIONREQUIRED = 511
};
int status = 0;
std::vector<std::string> headers;
std::vector<uint8_t> body;
};
class Request final
{
public:
Request(const std::string& url, InternetProtocol protocol = InternetProtocol::V4):
internetProtocol(protocol)
{
size_t schemeEndPosition = url.find("://");
if (schemeEndPosition != std::string::npos)
{
scheme = url.substr(0, schemeEndPosition);
path = url.substr(schemeEndPosition + 3);
}
else
{
scheme = "http";
path = url;
}
size_t fragmentPosition = path.find('#');
// remove the fragment part
if (fragmentPosition != std::string::npos)
path.resize(fragmentPosition);
std::string::size_type pathPosition = path.find('/');
if (pathPosition == std::string::npos)
{
domain = path;
path = "/";
}
else
{
domain = path.substr(0, pathPosition);
path = path.substr(pathPosition);
}
std::string::size_type portPosition = domain.find(':');
if (portPosition != std::string::npos)
{
port = domain.substr(portPosition + 1);
domain.resize(portPosition);
}
else
port = "80";
}
Response send(const std::string& method,
const std::map<std::string, std::string>& parameters,
const std::vector<std::string>& headers = {})
{
std::string body;
bool first = true;
for (const auto& parameter : parameters)
{
if (!first) body += "&";
first = false;
body += urlEncode(parameter.first) + "=" + urlEncode(parameter.second);
}
return send(method, body, headers);
}
Response send(const std::string& method = "GET",
const std::string& body = "",
const std::vector<std::string>& headers = {})
{
Response response;
if (scheme != "http")
throw std::runtime_error("Only HTTP scheme is supported");
addrinfo hints = {};
hints.ai_family = getAddressFamily(internetProtocol);
hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM;
addrinfo* info;
if (getaddrinfo(domain.c_str(), port.c_str(), &hints, &info) != 0)
throw std::system_error(getLastError(), std::system_category(), "Failed to get address info of " + domain);
Socket socket(internetProtocol);
// take the first address from the list
if (::connect(socket, info->ai_addr, info->ai_addrlen) < 0)
{
freeaddrinfo(info);
throw std::system_error(getLastError(), std::system_category(), "Failed to connect to " + domain + ":" + port);
}
freeaddrinfo(info);
std::string requestData = method + " " + path + " HTTP/1.1\r\n";
for (const std::string& header : headers)
requestData += header + "\r\n";
requestData += "Host: " + domain + "\r\n";
requestData += "Content-Length: " + std::to_string(body.size()) + "\r\n";
requestData += "\r\n";
requestData += body;
#if defined(__APPLE__) || defined(_WIN32)
int flags = 0;
#else
int flags = MSG_NOSIGNAL;
#endif
#ifdef _WIN32
int remaining = static_cast<int>(requestData.size());
int sent = 0;
int size;
#else
ssize_t remaining = static_cast<ssize_t>(requestData.size());
ssize_t sent = 0;
ssize_t size;
#endif
do
{
size = ::send(socket, requestData.data() + sent, static_cast<size_t>(remaining), flags);
if (size < 0)
throw std::system_error(getLastError(), std::system_category(), "Failed to send data to " + domain + ":" + port);
remaining -= size;
sent += size;
}
while (remaining > 0);
uint8_t TEMP_BUFFER[65536];
static const uint8_t clrf[] = {'\r', '\n'};
std::vector<uint8_t> responseData;
bool firstLine = true;
bool parsedHeaders = false;
int contentSize = -1;
bool chunkedResponse = false;
size_t expectedChunkSize = 0;
bool removeCLRFAfterChunk = false;
do
{
size = recv(socket, reinterpret_cast<char*>(TEMP_BUFFER), sizeof(TEMP_BUFFER), flags);
if (size < 0)
throw std::system_error(getLastError(), std::system_category(), "Failed to read data from " + domain + ":" + port);
else if (size == 0)
break; // disconnected
responseData.insert(responseData.end(), TEMP_BUFFER, TEMP_BUFFER + size);
if (!parsedHeaders)
{
for (;;)
{
auto i = std::search(responseData.begin(), responseData.end(), std::begin(clrf), std::end(clrf));
// didn't find a newline
if (i == responseData.end()) break;
std::string line(responseData.begin(), i);
responseData.erase(responseData.begin(), i + 2);
// empty line indicates the end of the header section
if (line.empty())
{
parsedHeaders = true;
break;
}
else if (firstLine) // first line
{
firstLine = false;
std::string::size_type pos, lastPos = 0, length = line.length();
std::vector<std::string> parts;
// tokenize first line
while (lastPos < length + 1)
{
pos = line.find(' ', lastPos);
if (pos == std::string::npos) pos = length;
if (pos != lastPos)
parts.push_back(std::string(line.data() + lastPos,
static_cast<std::vector<std::string>::size_type>(pos) - lastPos));
lastPos = pos + 1;
}
if (parts.size() >= 2)
response.status = std::stoi(parts[1]);
}
else // headers
{
response.headers.push_back(line);
std::string::size_type pos = line.find(':');
if (pos != std::string::npos)
{
std::string headerName = line.substr(0, pos);
std::string headerValue = line.substr(pos + 1);
// ltrim
headerValue.erase(headerValue.begin(),
std::find_if(headerValue.begin(), headerValue.end(),
[](int c) {return !std::isspace(c);}));
// rtrim
headerValue.erase(std::find_if(headerValue.rbegin(), headerValue.rend(),
[](int c) {return !std::isspace(c);}).base(),
headerValue.end());
if (headerName == "Content-Length")
contentSize = std::stoi(headerValue);
else if (headerName == "Transfer-Encoding" && headerValue == "chunked")
chunkedResponse = true;
}
}
}
}
if (parsedHeaders)
{
if (chunkedResponse)
{
bool dataReceived = false;
for (;;)
{
if (expectedChunkSize > 0)
{
auto toWrite = std::min(expectedChunkSize, responseData.size());
response.body.insert(response.body.end(), responseData.begin(), responseData.begin() + static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(toWrite));
responseData.erase(responseData.begin(), responseData.begin() + static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(toWrite));
expectedChunkSize -= toWrite;
if (expectedChunkSize == 0) removeCLRFAfterChunk = true;
if (responseData.empty()) break;
}
else
{
if (removeCLRFAfterChunk)
{
if (responseData.size() >= 2)
{
removeCLRFAfterChunk = false;
responseData.erase(responseData.begin(), responseData.begin() + 2);
}
else break;
}
auto i = std::search(responseData.begin(), responseData.end(), std::begin(clrf), std::end(clrf));
if (i == responseData.end()) break;
std::string line(responseData.begin(), i);
responseData.erase(responseData.begin(), i + 2);
expectedChunkSize = std::stoul(line, 0, 16);
if (expectedChunkSize == 0)
{
dataReceived = true;
break;
}
}
}
if (dataReceived)
break;
}
else
{
response.body.insert(response.body.end(), responseData.begin(), responseData.end());
responseData.clear();
// got the whole content
if (contentSize == -1 || response.body.size() >= static_cast<size_t>(contentSize))
break;
}
}
}
while (size > 0);
return response;
}
private:
#ifdef _WIN32
WinSock winSock;
#endif
InternetProtocol internetProtocol;
std::string scheme;
std::string domain;
std::string port;
std::string path;
};
}
#endif